5                WATER QUALITY MONITORING

Monitoring Requirements

5.1          In accordance with the Updated EM&A Manual, impact water quality monitoring shall be carried out three days per week at all the designated monitoring stations during the construction period. The measurement periods are during the construction of channel specified in Table 4.1 of the Updated EM&A Manual. The interval between two sets of monitoring shall not be less than 36 hours.

5.2          Replicate in-situ measurements of Dissolved Oxygen (DO), temperature, turbidity, pH, Suspended Solids (SS) and samples for Suspended Solids (SS), ammonia nitrogen, unionized ammonia, nitrate nitrogen and orthophosphate from each independent sampling event were collected to ensure a robust statistically interpretable database.

5.3          Appendix B shows the established Action and Limit Levels for the water quality monitoring work according to the Updated EM&A Manual and Baseline Water Quality Monitoring Report (KTN & FLN NDA).

Monitoring Parameters, Frequency

5.4          Table 5.1 summarises the monitoring parameters, monitoring periods and frequencies of the water quality monitoring.

Table 5.1     Water Quality Monitoring Parameters and Frequency

Parameters, unit

Depth

Frequency

·         Temperature(°C)

·         pH(pH unit)

·         turbidity (NTU)

·         water depth (m)

·         salinity (ppt)

·         DO (mg/L and % of saturation)

·         SS (mg/L)

·         Ammonia Nitrogen (NH3-N) (mg NH3-N/L)

·         Unionized Ammonia (UIA) (mg/L)

·         Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) (mg NO3--N/L)

·         Ortho-phosphate (PO4) (mg PO43--P/L)

·      3 water depths: 1m below water surface, mid-depth and 1m above river bed.

·      If the water depth was less than 3m, mid-depth sampling only.

·      If water depth was less than 6m, mid-depth may be omitted.

3 days per week during

construction of channel


Results and Observations

5.5          According to Section 5.6.1.2 of the approved EIA Report, the potential water quality impact during construction is due to the alternation of natural streams (i.e. channelization of Ma Tso Lung Stream and Siu Hang San Tsuen Stream) as these two streams are the ecologically important streams.

5.6          No construction of channel was carried out at Ma Tso Lung Stream and Siu Hang San Tsuen Stream during the reporting month. Therefore, no water quality monitoring was conducted.

Additional Water Quality Monitoring

Monitoring Requirements

5.7          Additional Water Quality Monitoring shall be carried out at River Beas, River Indus and near Siu Hang San Tsuen Stream three days per week at all designated monitoring stations during the construction period. The measurement period are during the construction site drainage along River Beas, construction of footbridge across River Beas and during construction of bridge across River Indus.

5.8          Replicate in-situ measurement and samples from each independent sampling event were collected to ensure a robust statistically interpretable database. DO, temperature, turbidity and pH were measured in-situ whereas SS and arsenic were determined by an accredited laboratory. Other relevant data, including monitoring location / position, time, water depth, weather conditions and any special phenomena or work underway at the construction site were recorded.

5.9          For all the monitoring stations, sampling were taken at 3 water depths, namely 1m below the water surface, mid depth and 1m above the river bed. For stations that were less than 3m in depth, only the mid depth sample was taken. Should the water depth was less than 6m, in which case the mid-depth station may have been omitted. The interval between two sampling surveys was not less than 36 hours.

5.10       Appendix B shows the established Action and Limit Levels for the environmental monitoring works.

Monitoring Locations

5.11       Additional impact water quality monitoring was conducted at 6 monitoring stations (SYR-CS1, SYR-IS1, NTR-CS1, NTR-IS1, SHST-IS2, MWR-IS3) which are summarised in Table 5.2. The location of monitoring stations is shown in Figures 5 and 6.


Table 5.2     Additional Water Quality Monitoring Stations

Station

Description

Locations

Measurement Periods

River Beas

SYR-CS1

Control Station

Upstream of river

During the construction site drainage along River Beas and construction of the footbridge across River Beas

SYR-IS1

Impact Station

Downstream of river

River Indus and near Siu Hang San Tsuen Stream

NTR-CS1

Control Station

Upstream of river

During construction of the bridge across River Indus

NTR-IS1

Impact Station

Downstream of river

SHST-IS2

Impact Station

Water sensitive receiver at near Siu Hang San Tsuen Stream

MWR-IS3

Impact Station

Water sensitive receiver at near Ma Wat River

Monitoring Equipment

Instrumentation

5.12       Multi-parameter meters (Model YSI EXO) were used to measure DO, turbidity, salinity, pH and temperature.

Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and Temperature Measuring Equipment

5.13       The instrument for measuring dissolved oxygen and temperature should be portable and weatherproof complete with cable, sensor, and use DC power source. The equipment was capable of measuring:

·         A dissolved oxygen level in the range of 0-20mg/L and 0-200% saturation; and

·         The temperature within 0-45 degree Celsius.

5.14       The equipment had a membrane electrode with automatic temperature compensation complete with a cable.

5.15       Sufficient stocks of spare electrodes and cables were available for replacement where necessary.

5.16       Salinity compensation was built-in in the DO equipment. In-situ salinity was measured to calibrate the DO equipment prior to each DO measurement.

Turbidity

5.17       Turbidity was measured in situ by using the nephelometric method. The instrument was portable and weatherproof using a DC power sources complete with cable, sensor and comprehensive operation manuals. The equipment was capable of measuring turbidity between 0-1000 NTU. The probe cable was not less than 25m in length. The meter was calibrated in order to establish the relationship between NTU units and the levels of suspended Solids.


Salinity

5.18       A portable salinometer capable of recording salinity within the range of 0-40 parts per thousand (ppt) was used for salinity measurement.

Water Depth Detector

5.19       A portable, battery-operated and hand held echo sounder was used for the determination of water depth at each designated monitoring station.

pH

5.20       The instrument consisted of a potentiometer, a glass electrode, a reference electrode and a temperature-compensating device. It was readable to 0.1pH in a range of 0 to 14. Standard buffer solutions of at least pH 7 and pH 10 were used for calibration of the instrument before and after use.

Water Sampling for Laboratory Analysis

5.21       A water sampler, consisting of a transparent Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) of a capacity of not less than two litres which can be effectively sealed with cups at both ends was used. The water sampler had a positive latching system to keep it open and prevent premature closure until released by a messenger when the sampler was at the selected water depth. In addition, a sampling cup attached to a fixed or extendable rod was also used for sampling at the monitoring stations with swallow water.

Sample Container and Storage

5.22       Following collection, water samples for laboratory analysis were stored in high density polyethylene bottles with appropriate preservatives added, packed in the ice (cooled to 4oC without being frozen). The samples were delivered to WELLAB Limited (HOKLAS Registration No. HOKLAS083) and analysed as soon as possible after collection of the water samples. Sufficient volume of samples was collected to achieve the detection limit.

Calibration of In Situ Instruments

5.23       The pH meter, DO meter and turbidimeter were checked and calibrated before use. DO meter and turbidimeter were certified by WELLAB Limited before use and subsequently re-calibrated at quarterly basis throughout all stage of water quality monitoring programme. Response of sensors and electrodes were checked with certified standard solutions before each use. Wet bulb calibration for a DO meter was carried out before measurement at each monitoring station.

5.24       For on-site calibration of field equipment (Multi-parameter Water Quality System), the standard BS 1427:2009 “Guide to on-site test methods for analysis of waters” was observed.

Back-up Equipment

5.25       Sufficient stocks of spare parts were maintained for replacements when necessary. Backup monitoring equipment was also be made available so that monitoring could proceed uninterrupted even when some equipment was under maintenance, calibration, etc.


5.26       Table 5.3 summarises the equipment used in the water quality monitoring programme. Copies of the calibration certificates of the multi-parameter water quality systems are shown in Appendix C.

Table 5.3     Water Quality Monitoring Equipment

Equipment

Model and Make

Qty.

Water sampler and sampling cup

A 2-Litre transparent PVC cylinder with latex cups at both ends and sampling cup for monitoring stations with swallow water

1

Sonar Water Depth Detector

Garmin Striker plus 4

1

Multi-parameter Water Quality System

YSI EXO 1

2

Monitoring Parameters and Frequency

5.27       Table 5.4 summarises the monitoring parameters and frequencies of the additional water quality monitoring. The water quality monitoring schedule for the reporting month is shown in Appendix D.

Table 5.4     Additional Water Quality Monitoring Parameters and Frequency

Monitoring Station(s)

Parameters, unit

Depth

Frequency

River Beas

SYR-CS1

SYR-IS1

·         Temperature (oC)

·         pH (pH unit)

·         Turbidity (NTU)

·         Water depth (m)

·         Salinity (ppt)

·         Dissolved Oxygen (DO) (mg/L and % of saturation)

·         Suspended Solids (SS) (mg/L)

·         Arsenic (As) (µg/L)

·         3 water depths: 1m below water surface, mid-depth and 1m above river bed.

·         If the water depth was less than 3m, mid-depth sampling only.

·         If water depth was less than 6m, mid-depth might be omitted.

3 days per week

River Indus and near Siu Hang San Tsuen Stream

NTR-CS1

NTR-IS1

SHST-IS2

MWR-IS3

·         Temperature (oC)

·         pH (pH unit)

·         Turbidity (NTU)

·         Water depth (m)

·         Salinity (ppt)

·         Dissolved Oxygen (DO) (mg/L and % of saturation)

·         Suspended Solids (SS) (mg/L)

 

5.28       Monitoring location and position, time, sampling depth, weather conditions and any special phenomena or work underway nearby was also recorded.


Monitoring Methodology

Instrumentation

5.29       Multi-parameter meters (Model YSI EXO) were used to measure DO, turbidity, salinity, pH and temperature.

Operating/Analytical Procedures

5.30       At each measurement, two consecutive measurements of DO concentration, DO saturation, salinity, turbidity, pH and temperature were taken. The probes were retrieved out of the water after the first measurement and then re-deployed for the second measurement. Where the difference in the value between the first and second readings of each set was more than 25% of the value of the first reading, the reading was discarded and further readings were taken.

Laboratory Analytical Methods

5.31       Duplicate samples from each independent sampling event were required for all parameters. Analysis of suspended solids and arsenic were carried out by WELLAB Ltd. and comprehensive quality assurance and control procedures were in place in order to ensure the quality and consistency in results. The analysis methods and limits of reporting are provided in Table 5.5.

Table 5.5     Method for Laboratory Analysis for Water Samples


 

Determinant

Proposed Method

Limit of Reporting

Total Suspend Solids (SS)

APHA 17ed 2540 D

2.5 mg/L

Arsenic (As)

In-house method SOP022 (ICP-AES) and SOP076 (ICP-MS)

1 µg/L

 


 

 

 

 

 

QA/QC Requirements

Decontamination Procedures

5.32       Water sampling equipment used during the course of the monitoring process was decontaminated by manual washing and rinsed with distilled water after each sampling event. All of the disposal equipment was discarded after the sampling.

Sampling Management and Supervision

5.33       All sampling bottles were labelled with the sample I.D. (including sampling station), laboratory number and sampling date. Water samples were dispatched to the testing laboratory for analysis as soon as possible. All the collected samples were stored in a cool box to keep the temperature less than 4oC but without frozen. All water samples were handled under chain of custody protocols and relinquished to the laboratory representatives at locations specified by the laboratory.


Quality Control Measures for Sample Testing

5.34       The samples testing and following QC programmes were performed by WELLAB Ltd. for every batch of 20 samples:

·                One method blank; and

·                One set of QC sample.

Results and Observations

5.35       All additional water quality monitoring was conducted as scheduled in the reporting month. The water quality monitoring schedule for this reporting month is shown in Appendix D.

5.36       The monitoring results and graphical presentation of additional water quality monitoring are shown in Appendix G.

5.37       No Action/Limit Level exceedance was recorded in the reporting month. The summary of exceedance record in the reporting month is shown in Appendix O.

 

Event and Action Plan

5.38       Should any non-compliance of the criteria occur, actions in accordance with the Event/Action Plan in Appendix N shall be carried out.